Wind turbine (wind power plant or wind turbine) is a device for converting the kinetic energy of the wind flow into mechanical energy of rotor rotation with its subsequent transformation into electric energy.
Wind turbines can be divided into three categories: industrial, commercial and household (for private use).
Industrial are established by the state or large energy corporations. As a rule, they are united in a network, the result is a wind power plant. Its main difference from traditional (thermal, nuclear) is the complete absence of both raw materials and waste. The only important requirement for wind farms is a high average annual wind level.
Types of wind farms
The most common type of wind farms at the moment. Wind turbines are installed on hills or uplands.
The industrial wind generator is built on the prepared site for 7-10 days.
For construction, you need a road to the construction site, a heavy lifting equipment with a boom lift of more than 50 meters, since the gondolas are installed at an altitude of about 50 meters.
The power plant is connected by cable to the transmission network.
The Coastal wind power stations are built at a small distance from the shore of the sea or the ocean. On the coast with a daily periodicity blows a breeze, which is caused by uneven heating of the land surface and the reservoir. Daytime, or sea breeze, moves from the water surface to land, and the night, or coastal - from the cooled coast to the reservoir.
Offshore wind power stations are built in the sea: 10-60 kilometers from the coast. Offshore wind farms have several advantages:
- they are practically invisible from the coast;
- they do not occupy the land;
- they are more efficient because of regular sea winds.
Offshore power stations are built on the sea with a shallow depth. Towers of wind generators are installed on foundations of piles, slaughtered to a depth of 30 meters. Electricity is transmitted to the ground by submarine cables.
Offshore power plants are more expensive in construction than their terrestrial counterparts. Generators require higher towers and more massive foundations. Salty sea water can lead to corrosion of metal structures.